The difference between a vertical lathe and an ordinary lathe is that its main shaft is vertical, which is equivalent to standing an ordinary lathe upright. Vertical lathes are large-scale mechanical equipment used to process large and heavy workpieces with large radial dimensions and relatively small axial dimensions and complex shapes. Such as the cylindrical surface, end surface, conical surface, cylindrical hole, conical hole, etc. of various discs, wheels and sleeves. It can also be used for threading, spherical turning, profiling, milling and grinding with the help of additional devices. Compared with the horizontal lathe, the workpiece is clamped inside the clamp decoration of the horizontal lathe. On the vertical lathe, the spindle axis is arranged vertically, and the table top is in the horizontal plane, so the clamping and alignment of the workpiece are more convenient. This layout reduces the load on the main shaft and bearings, so the vertical lathe can maintain the working accuracy for a long time.